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MPI Hosts Sixth Meeting of Article VI Forum in Berlin
MPI Report
Berlin, Germany
January 28, 2009

The sixth Article VI Forum was held in Berlin, January 29-30, 2009, with the theme New Imperatives and Openings for a Nuclear weapon-Free World. Convened with the support of the Government of Germany, the Forum explored how the non-proliferation and disarmament agenda can be pursued in this period of transition. The forum participants looked at many of these changes - especially the vocal support for abolition by establishment thinkers in key countries – as a source of optimism for the various immediate and long-term initiatives, tempered by the understanding that there are numerous counter-trends..


MPI Hosts Fifth Meeting of Article VI Forum in Dublin
MPI Report
Dublin, Ireland
March 26, 2008

The Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), with the support of the Government of Ireland, convened the fifth Article VI Forum in Dublin, Ireland, March 27-28, 2008. Entitled NPT: Pathfinder to a Nuclear Weapons- Free World, the consultation sought to link the vision of the abolition of nuclear weapons with the need to reconnect with the necessary practical measures. Keeping with the spirit of this duality, the Forum dealt primarily with three issues which are of immediate concern for the viability of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as well as necessary for the long-term viability of nuclear disarmament: reductions and de-alerting of strategic forces; missiles, missile defense systems and space weapon; and strategies for the elimination of nuclear weapons.


MPI Panel at NPT PrepCom in Vienna
MPI Event Report
Vienna, Austria
May 2, 2007

VIENNA - The Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) prepared a position paper for the NPT PrepCom entitled “Towards 2010: Priorities for NPT Consensus,” with the aim of presenting to states parties and NGOs a focused agenda of seven priorities issues that MPI “believes are sufficiently mature and general to be usefully emphasized now within the NPT review process.” The position paper distills the deliberations and recommendations from the four Article VI Forum consultations that MPI has convened since October 2005.

Click here for a PDF version of the report


MPI Hosts Fourth Meeting of Article VI Forum in Vienna
MPI Report
Vienna, Austria
March 29-30, 2007

VIENNA - The fourth meeting of the Article VI Forum, entitled "Forging a New Consensus for the NPT, took place at the Vienna International Center in Vienna, Austria, March 29-30, 2007. Coming one month before the first meeting of the preparatory committee for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference, the consultation focused on issues that will be central to the preparatory process and the Review Conference itself, including fuel cycle issues, the Comprehensive Test Ban, the Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty, and the 1995 Resolution on the Middle East.


MPI Hosts Third Meeting of Article VI Forum in Ottawa
MPI Event Report
Ottawa, Canada
September 28-29, 2006

OTTAWA - Representatives from twenty-five states met in the Canadian capital on September 28-29 for a Middle Powers Initiative sponsored consultation on Responding to the Challenges to the NPT. This was the third meeting of the MPI's Article VI Forum, an initiative designed to create an informal setting where diplomats, experts and NGOs can discuss ways to strengthen the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime through the NPT.


Revitalizing Nuclear Disarmament Norms: The Role of Middle Powers
MPI Event Report
United Nations, New York
October 12, 2006
By Jim Wurst

UNITED NATIONS -the Middle Powers Initiative sponsored a panel entitled, "Revitalizing Nuclear Disarmament Norms: The Role of the Middle Powers" on October 12, 2006. The Hon. Douglas Roche, O.C., the Chairman of the Middle Powers Initiative, opened the session stating that "disarmament norms" are based in certain principles encapsulated in what is written in a treaty as well as the treaty's intent. While the people in the people listening to the panel would know what is meant by "disarmament norms," the general public might react with puzzled looks. He added, "Yet, instinctively, they know what disarmament norms are even as powerful voices in society would like the world to think there are no such things." This, he noted, shows the strength of human decency.


MPI Participates at World Peace Forum
MPI Event Report
Vancouver, Canada
June 23-28 2006
By Jim Wurst

An evocative and spirited discussion of the key issues on the global peace agenda held on the Peace Boat was the highlight of the Middle Powers Initiative's (MPI) participation at the World Peace Forum in Vancouver, Canada, on June 28. Some 300 people attended the forum entitled Making the Earth Whole: An Integrated Peace Agenda. Living up to that theme, the panelists at the MPI-sponsored event on June 28 took the long view on how nuclear disarmament, social and economic justice and environmental protection are being integrated in such a way as to improve each element of the global campaign.


MPI Sends High-Level Delegation to Canada & Testifies Before House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee
MPI Event Report
Ottawa, Canada
June 12-13, 2006
By Matt Werner

Summary: On June 12-13, 2006, the Middle Powers Initiative successfully sent its fifth high-level delegation to the government of Canada since 1998. Members of the delegation were received by the Prime Minister, the Deputy Foreign Minister, the National Defence Minister and were presented a MPI Briefing Paper prepared especially for the government of Canada. In addition, the delegation formally testified before the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee (link to testimony).

The delegation was led by Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell, former Prime Minister of Canada and included MPI Chairman Hon. Douglas Roche, O.C., Bipartisan Security Group Chairman Ambassador Thomas Graham, and Global Security Institute President Jonathan Granoff. This was the second time Prime Minister Campbell led an MPI delegation to Ottawa.


MPI Hosts Second Meeting of Article VI Forum in The Hague
MPI Event Report
The Hague, The Netherlands
March 2-3, 2006

THE HAGUE - A gathering of high-level representatives of 21 states at a special forum at The Hague, March 2-3, examined ways to reinforce and revitalize the international commitments to nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament as embodied in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Convened by the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), the Article VI Forum was addressed by two former prime ministers - Ruud Lubbers of the Netherlands and Kim Campbell of Canada - and former UN Under Secretary General for Disarmament Affairs, Ambassador Nobuyasu Abe, and Marian Hobbs, the former Disarmament Minister of New Zealand. The Forum is a program of the Middle Powers Initiative, a consortium of eight non-government organizations dedicated to the elimination of nuclear weapons. The two-day meeting, co-hosted by the Netherlands Institute of International Relations "Clingendael," was entitled Securing the Future: Strengthening the NPT. The Article VI Forum takes its name from the article of the NPT in which the nuclear states commit themselves to the elimination of their nuclear weapons. The first meeting of the Article VI Forum took place at the United Nations in October 2005.


Moving Forward on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament
MPI Event Report
Oct 17, 2005
By John Koogler

United Nations, New York - The Middle Powers Initiative hosted a luncheon at the United Nations on October 17, 2005, on the theme "Moving Forward on Non-Proliferation and Disarmament." The working lunch was an opportunity to discuss institutional obstacles to nonproliferation and disarmament in light of critical issues before the First Committee of the General Assembly of the U.N.

The event was hosted by Jonathan Granoff, President of the Global Security Institute, with keynote speakers Ambassador Luis de Alba, Permanent Representative of Mexico, and Ambassador Elisabet Borsiin Bonnier, Permanent Representative of Sweden.


How to Make the NPT Review Conference Successful
MPI Event Report
May 2, 2005
By Zachary Allen

On May 2, 2005, the opening day of the 2005 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) organized a forum for diplomats and NGO representatives on "How to make the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Process Successful." The panel featured Ambassador Sergio de Queiroz. Duarte, President of the NPT Review Conference; Hon. Marion Hobbs, New Zealand's Minister for Disarmament; and Ambassador Paul Meyer of Canada.


How to Make the NPT Review Conference Successful
MPI Event Report
May 2, 2005
By Zachary Allen

On May 2, 2005, the opening day of the 2005 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) organized a forum for diplomats and NGO representatives on "How to make the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Process Successful." The panel featured Ambassador Sergio de Queiroz. Duarte, President of the NPT Review Conference; Hon. Marion Hobbs, New Zealand's Minister for Disarmament; and Ambassador Paul Meyer of Canada.


How to Make the NPT Review Conference Successful
MPI Event Report
May 2, 2005
By Zachary Allen

On May 2, 2005, the opening day of the 2005 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) organized a forum for diplomats and NGO representatives on "How to make the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Process Successful." The panel featured Ambassador Sergio de Queiroz. Duarte, President of the NPT Review Conference; Hon. Marion Hobbs, New Zealand's Minister for Disarmament; and Ambassador Paul Meyer of Canada.


Our Greatest Threat: The Coming Nuclear Crisis
By Hon. Douglas Roche, O.C.
Article in Commonweal Magazine
March 11, 2005

When the first atomic bombs destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it could hardly have been imagined that nearly sixty years later 34,145 nuclear weapons would be in existence. In a long career as a parliamentarian, diplomat, and educator, I have come to the conclusion that the abolition of nuclear weapons is the indispensable condition for peace in the twenty-first century. Yet progress toward that goal has been halted.


"New Implications for the NPT 2005 Review"
MPI Event Report
United Nations, New York
Report by Matt Werner
November 4, 2004

United Nations, New York - On November 4, 2004, the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) hosted a forum at the United Nations entitled, "New Implications for the NPT 2005 Review." The distinguished panel included the Right Honourable Kim Campbell, Former Prime Minister of Canada; Ambassador Robert Grey, Jr., Former U.S. Representative to the Conference on Disarmament, Geneva; and John Holum, Former U.S. Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and National Security.

Ms. Campbell served as the Panel Chair while Mr. Holum and Amb. Grey offered their views on how the U.S. election outcome would affect the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review in May of 2005.

MPI convened this forum with the goal of stimulating discussion regarding the current political realities surrounding the NPT review process. Two diverging strategies were addressed, specifically whether countries should assume a hard-line approach to the review or whether a moderate approach would be more reasonable and unifying.


Saving the Non-Proliferation Treaty: The Role of Parliamentarians
By Hon. Douglas Roche, O.C.
October 19, 2004
United Nations, New York
Address to 2004 Parliamentary Hearing at the United Nations
Sponsored By Inter-Parliamentary Union

I wish to congratulate the Inter-Parliamentary Union for strengthening international cooperation through integrating your work into the United Nations system. The IPU resolution of October 1, 2004, calling on Parliaments to strengthen multilateral regimes for non-proliferation of weapons and for disarmament is enlightened, comprehensive and progressive. I wish I had had such a resolution in my hands when I entered the Parliament of Canada thirty-two years ago, for it would have given me an overview of what to aim for in addressing global security challenges. Of course, these challenges have evolved over the years of my parliamentary career - the ending of the Cold War, a plethora of regional wars, the terrorism of 9/11 - but the principles underlying the quest for security have remained the same. The principles are summed up in the United Nations Charter and related instruments emphasizing the need for multilateral cooperation to implement the rule of law.


New Agenda Coalition Draft Resolution for UNGA First Committee
Draft resolution for UNGA First Committee
NAC- New Agenda Coalition (Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, and Sweden)

8 October, 2004

Title: Towards a nuclear-weapon free world: Accelerating the
implementation of nuclear disarmament commitments

The General Assembly,

(pp1) Recalling its resolution 58/51 of 8 December 2003, and mindful of the upcoming 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons,

(pp2) Expressing its grave concern at the danger to humanity posed by the possibility that nuclear weapons could be used and at the lack of implementation of binding obligations and agreed steps toward nuclear disarmament and reaffirming that nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation are mutually reinforcing processes requiring urgent irreversible progress on both fronts,


Nonproliferation and disarmament go hand in hand
International Herald Tribune
Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Seven foreign ministers speak out Nuclear weapons, a legacy of the cold war, today give rise to dangerous new perspectives. Old and new threats converge, putting at risk the security of us all.

Seven years ago the foreign ministers of our countries - Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and Sweden - joined together in a New Agenda Coalition to work toward a security order where nuclear weapons would no longer be given a role. Today, we are more convinced than ever that nuclear disarmament is imperative for international peace and security.


New Zealand Minister Hobbs Calls for Global Nuclear Disarmament, Thanks MPI
MPI Event Report
United Nations, New York
By Dr. Urs Cipolat
April 27, 2004

On Monday, April 26, the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), led by Senator Douglas Roche from Canada, held a Forum on "Ensuring Full Implementation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty." The public event, attended by 30 government and 40 NGO representatives, was chaired by Dr. Randy Rydell, Senior Political Affairs Officer in the Office of the Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs at the United Nations.


Ottawa Roundtable: MPI writes policy paper for new Canadian government
By Dr. Urs Cipolat, MPI Program Director
Ottawa, Canada
Saturday, February 28, 2004

From Thursday, February 26, to Friday, February 27, the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) and the Canadian Pugwash Group (CPG) co-hosted a Roundtable for 30 invited experts in Ottawa, Canada. The Roundtable focused on Canada's nuclear weapons policies and discussed core issues relating to the upcoming 2005 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT). Several high-level Canadian policy-makers participated in the event, which was supported by the Canadian government. Based on the insights gained during the Ottawa Roundtable, MPI and CPG have written a Policy Paper for the new Canadian government under Prime Minister Paul Martin (see link below). The Policy Paper makes a number of recommendations to the Canadian Government regarding how to better respond to current security challenges resulting from the continued possession and production of nuclear weapons.


No More Nagasakis! No More Hiroshimas!
By Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.
Nagasaki, Japan
November 22, 2003

Keynote Address to 2nd Nagasaki Global Citizens' Assembly for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons

No more Nagasakis!

No more Hiroshimas!

I say again: Let Nagasaki be the last nuclear weapons explosion!

We have assembled at this great conference to send a message to the world. That message is: abolish nuclear weapons.

There is no excuse, no reason, no rationale that can justify the retention of nuclear weapons today. They are immoral and they are illegal.


MPI Calls Upon Japanese Government to Promote Nuclear Disarmament Steps
November 20, 2003

TOKYO--On November 20, 2003, Canadian Senator Douglas Roche, Chair of the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), led an MPI delegation to meet with foreign ministry officials and key parliamentary leaders in Tokyo. MPI encouraged the government of Japan to play a more active leadership role in promoting the 13 Practical Steps and strengthen the center of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) regime by supporting the New Agenda resolutions at the United Nations General Assembly and their proposals for the 2005 NPT Review Conference.


MPI Aide-Memoire "Making the NPT Work"
October 2003

In a recent Aide-Memoire entitled "Making the NPT Work in 2005", MPI encourages a number of key European middle power governments to take decisive steps to strengthen the severely challenged Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) in the run-up to the 2005 NPT Review Conference. Such steps include supporting the two UN General Assembly Resolutions submitted by the New Agenda Coalition (NAC), renouncing the reliance on nuclear weapons in their national security policies, developing an NPT emergency mechanism, and presuring the United States to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and stop obstructing the adoption of a work program at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva.


MPI Brief on NATO Nuclear Policy
Briefing Paper
September 2003

From October 7 to October 16, 2003, an MPI delegation consisting of Senator Douglas Roche, Aaron Tovish, and Alyn Ware visited three NATO countries -- Belgium, Germany and Norway. Dr. Urs Cipolat, MPI Program Director and co-author of MPI's Brief on NATO Nuclear Policy, accompanied the delegation. While touring Europe, the MPI delegation called upon all NATO countries to renounce their reliance on nuclear weapons in their security policies, and to support two UN General Assembly resolutions submitted by the New Agenda Coalition (NAC).


Top U.N. Disarmament Official Calls for U.S., Russian Action
Friday, September 19, 2003
By Joe Fiorill
U.N. Wire

MOSCOW--U.N. Undersecretary General for Disarmament Affairs Nobuyasu Abe said here today that a "collapse" of the international nonproliferation regime is possible without concerted action, notably by the United States and Russia.

Speaking to top experts and officials from 36 countries at a PIR Center -Carnegie Endowment for International Peace nonproliferation conference, Abe cited complaints that disarmament by nuclear weapon states "proceeds at a snail's pace," calling the charge "legitimate" but adding that it should not serve as an excuse for other countries to "renege on nonproliferation obligations."


Facing A Second Nuclear Age
By William J. Broad
The New York Times
Sunday, August 3, 2003

NEW YORK--This week, ten minutes by car south of Omaha, Neb., the United States Strategic Command is holding a little-advertised meeting at which the Bush administration is to solidify its plans for acquiring a new generation of nuclear arms. Topping the wish list are weapons meant to penetrate deep into the earth to destroy enemy bunkers. The Pentagon believes that more than 70 nations, big and small, now have some 1,400 underground command posts and sites for ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction.


2003 PrepCom: Report of the MPI Chair
MPI Analysis
Palais des Nations
United Nations, Geneva
May 9, 2003

The Chair of the Middle Powers Initiative, Senator Douglas Roche, O.C., is Canada's former Disarmament Ambassador. He followed the Second NPT Preparatory Committee Meeting in Geneva, which took place from April 28 to May 9, 2003.

To download Senator Roche's Report and Assessment of the Second PrepCom, go to the following link:

- "The 2003 PrepCom: A Ritualistic Façade" (PDF).

To download the two attachments to Senator Roche's Report, go to:

- Chairman Molnar's Factual Statement (PDF);

- UN Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs Jayantha Dhanapala's speech "The NPT -- Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow" (website).


April 2003 MPI Briefing Paper
MPI Policy Document
San Francisco
April 2003

"This paper makes an important contribution in a threefold way. First, it clarifies that too little has been done to advance the nuclear disarmament agenda adopted in 2000. Second, it helps holding governments accountable for what they did and didn't do since 2000. Finally, it underscores that governments remain responsible under the commitments made in 2000 to fully implement the 13 Practical Steps."

Jayatha Dhanapala
UN Under-Secretary General for Disarmament Affairs, New York

To download MPI's April 2003 Briefing Paper, click on the following link:
April 2003 MPI Briefing Paper, "Advancing the NPT 13 Practical Steps" (PDF)


President Vicente Fox of Mexico Meets with MPI Delegation
MPI Report
Mexico City
December 5, 2002

On December 5, 2002, a Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) delegation, consisting of Senator Douglas Roche, Chairman of MPI, Jonathan Granoff, President of the Global Security Institute, and Ambassador Miguel Marin-Bosch, former Deputy Foreign Minister of Mexico, met with Vincente Fox, President of Mexico, at the Presidential Palace in Mexico City.


MPI Consultation Report: "Priorities for Preserving the NPT"
San Francisco
November 30, 2002
By Urs Cipolat, MPI Program Manager

On October 3, 2002, the Middle Powers Initiative (MPI) held a Strategy Consultation at the United Nations in New York. The Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell, former Prime Minister of Canada, chaired the successful event, which brought together ambassadors and delegates from more than 20 countries and a dozen non-governmental organizations.

In their introductory remarks, Jonathan Granoff, President of the Global Security Institute, and Senator Douglas Roche, Chair of MPI, stressed the interconnectedness of the human security agenda. The formal presentations by Ambassador Mary Whelan from Ireland, Mr. Santiago Mourão from Brazil, and Ambassador Robert Grey Jr. from the United States, provided a useful overview of ongoing nuclear disarmament initiatives and a thought-provoking analysis of the new security context in which the international community finds itself since President George W. Bush took office. The off-the-record roundtable discussion, initiated by Dr. Randy Rydell of the UN Department for Disarmament Affairs, focused on the widely distributed August 2002 MPI Briefing Paper, "Priorities for Preserving the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in the New Strategic Context."


MPI Shares Recommendations With Japanese Foreign Ministry
MPI Event Report
Tokyo, Japan
November 23, 2003

On November 21, 2002, a Middle Powers Initiative delegation led by Dr. David Krieger, President, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, met with top Japanese Foreign Ministry officials to discuss recent developments in the realm of nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation and encourage Japan to play an active leadership role in pressing for the strengthening and full implementation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NTP).


MPI Praises Canada's Principled Vote on New Agenda Resolution at UN
MPI Report
Ottawa, Canada
October 30, 2002

A Middle Powers Initiative delegation led by former Canadian Prime Minister Kim Campbell held two days of meetings in Ottawa October 29-30 with Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, Foreign Affairs Minister Bill Graham, National Defence Minister John McCallum and their senior officials. The delegation testified before the parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee, met with NGO leaders, other parliamentarians and held a nationally covered press conference.


Former PM Returns to Hill as Anti-Nuke Peace Activist:
Kim Campbell backs Chretien's Caution with US

Peter O'Neil
Vancouver Sun
October 30, 2002

ILLUSTRATION: Photo: Wayne Cuddington, Ottawa Citizen / Harvard lecturerKim Campbell waits to appear before the Commons foreign affairs and international trade committee.

OTTAWA -- Kim Campbell, Canada's first and only female prime minister and a former tough-talking defence minister, made a surprise Parliament Hill comeback Tuesday as a "hard-nosed" peace activist.

Campbell, who now lives primarily in Boston and lectures at Harvard University, is leading an international delegation that advocates as its ultimate goal the complete elimination of nuclear weapons from the planet.


"Battle for the Planet"
Report of the Third Global Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates

By Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.
October 19-20, 2002

SUMMARY: The 3rd World Summit of Nobel Peace Laureates was held at Rome October 19-20, 2002, under the sponsorship of Mikhail Gorbachev, President of the Gorbachev Foundation and the Nobel Peace Laureate of 1990. Under President Gorbachev's leadership, a statement was issued, to be distributed throughout the U.N. system and to many world leaders, calling for a solution to the Iraq-U.S. crisis by the U.N. Security Council and not unilateral action. Security Council resolutions must be fully adhered to, and the rights of the Iraqi people respected. The struggle against terrorism must not become a pretext for unjust constraints on human rights. The statement sharply criticized new military doctrines which make a pre-emptive nuclear weapons attack possible. The statement, calling for the abolition of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, said: "Nuclear weapons are immoral and every use of them is illegal." The statement concluded: "A culture of peace must overcome today's culture of war." With the theme of the meeting, "Beyond Johannesburg: Water Emergency and Other Emergencies of the World," participants supported a "Water for Peace" initiative flowing out of the Johannesburg Declaration, "Battle for the Planet," signed by six Nobel laureates and the mayors of several large cities. Six Nobel Peace laureates attended the Rome meeting with the representatives of 14 other organizations that received the Nobel Peace Prize. President Gorbachev awarded a "Man of Peace" prize to Italian actor-director Roberto Benigni.


New Agenda Coalition Draft UN Resolution
Towards a Nuclear Weapon Free World: The Need for a New Agenda

United Nations
1 October 2002

Fifty-seventh session A/C.1/57/L.

Agenda item 66: General and complete disarmament

Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and Sweden:
draft resolution

Towards a nuclear weapon free world: the need for a new agenda


New Agenda Coalition Draft UN Resolution
Reductions of Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons

United Nations A/C.1/57/L.2
1 October 2002

Fifty-seventh session
First Committee
Agenda item 66

General and complete disarmament

Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa and Sweden: draft resolution

Reductions of non-strategic nuclear weapons


The Impact of 11 September 2001 on the Disarmament Agenda for the 21st Century
Remarks by the Rt. Hon. Kim Campbell, P.C.
3 October 2002
United Nations, New York

Under-Secretary-General, Madam Moderator, Distinguished Panelists,

I am honoured to have been invited to say a couple of words to you this afternoon at the opening of this extremely important seminar. The good thing about being an honoured guest and not a speaker is that you know my remarks will be brief.

I had the great pleasure this morning to chair a strategy consultation from the Middle Powers Initiative on the subject of priorities for preserving the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in a new strategic context. It was an extremely fruitful and interesting discussion and the report on it will be distributed to all the delegations here in the United Nations.


Priorities for Preserving the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in the New Strategic Context
An MPI Briefing Paper
August 2002

View the PDF version of this MPI Briefing Paper.


The NPT: Crisis and Challenge [PART I]
Report and Assessment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Preparatory Committee Meeting

By Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.
Chairman, Middle Powers Initiative
United Nations
New York
April 8-19, 2002


An exercise in frustration, the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee for the 2005 Review of the Non-Proliferation Treaty dashed the hopes raised at the 2000 Review for serious progress on nuclear disarmament. Not only did the Nuclear Weapons States (NWS) step back from their "unequivocal undertaking" to negotiate the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals, the PrepComm could not even agree on how implementation reports will be made. Extensive wrangling over a timetable for the PrepComm meetings signaled the deep divisions persisting in the international community on the future of nuclear weapons. With the United States openly admitting that its new approach consists of nuclear and non-nuclear offensive systems and stating that it "no longer supports" some of the 13 Practical Steps agreed to in 2000 (e.g., ABM Treaty, CTBT), the NPT has been severely wounded.

The New Agenda countries played a strong role, protesting that there had been few advances in the 13 Steps since 2000, warning that, despite bilateral and unilateral reductions, the total number of nuclear weapons deployed and stockpiled still amounts to thousands, and promising to pursue, with continued vigour, the full and effective implementation of the 2000 agreements.

The subjects of nuclear terrorism, compliance by Iraq and North Korea to their NPT commitments, and the continuing refusal of India, Pakistan and Israel to join the NPT were all given prominent attention. The IAEA pointed to its $12 million voluntarily funded 8-point plan of action to improve protection against acts of terrorism involving nuclear material and other radioactive materials.

The PrepComm took up the subject of reporting on the implementation of Article VI and the 1995 Resolution on the Middle East, but could not agree on the scope, frequency or format of such reporting.

Fourteen statements by non-governmental organizations to the PrepComm were praised by several delegates for substance and insights.

The PrepComm ended with a seven-page "Chairman's Factual Summary" annexed to the Report of the PrepComm. The Factual Summary reflected points made at the meeting, including concern about existing nuclear arsenals, new approaches to the future role of nuclear weapons and development of new generations of nuclear weapons; and concern that the U.S. withdrawal from the ABM Treaty and the development of missile defence systems could lead to a new arms race. This document goes forward to the Second PrepComm (2003 in Geneva), but its status was immediately challenged; though the Report (with the Annex) was adopted without a vote, the U.S., the U.K. and France made a point of insisting that the Factual Summary was only the Chairman's "personal" statement.


The NPT: Crisis and Challenge [PART II]
By Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.

8. IAEA and Safeguards: Combating Terrorism

8.1 The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) described its plan of
action to improve protection against acts of terrorism involving nuclear material and other radioactive materials. The eight areas are:

"1) physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities; 2) detection of malicious activities (such as illicit trafficking) involving nuclear and other radioactive materials; 3) strengthening of State systems for nuclear material accountancy and control; 4) security of radioactive sources, 5) the assessment of safety and security related vulnerabilities at nuclear facilities; 6) response to malicious acts or threats thereof; 7) the adherence to international agreements and guidelines, and 8) enhancement of programme co-ordination and information management for nuclear security related matters."


The NPT: Crisis and Challenge [PART III]
By Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.

13. NGO Statements: 14 Presentations

13.1 The PrepComm devoted the whole of Wednesday morning of the first
week to hearing 14 NGO Statements. The exercise was convened by Reaching Critical Will, a project of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, U.N. Office, and the NGO Committee for Disarmament. The following are brief excerpts from the speeches, which make up a 59-page document at www.reachingcriticalwill.org

13.2 Political Overview. Speaker, Emily Schroeder (WILPF).

"While we use, and feel deeply that it is necessary to use, the language of crisis we understand that in the comfortable surroundings of this UN conference room it is difficult to connect with the nuclear dangers that face us. This is a significant problem, as the daily reality that thousands of nuclear weapons remain a hair-trigger's length from global catastrophe is so immense that instinctively we refuse to confront it. You do not have the luxury of denying the reality of the threat, burying it under layers of diplomatic language. The failure to address the continued high political value given to nuclear weapons possession and the stimulus that provides to proliferation is perilous to us all in the long run. Is it responsible to remain silent knowing full well the extent of the dangers we face?...

Western Europe, for the first time ever, faces no external or internal military threats, and yet NATO clings, without coherent justification, to the security blanket of the US nuclear umbrella. Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Greece and Turkey claim non-nuclear status while receiving nuclear weapons, and training in their use from the United States under NATO nuclear sharing policies. Such hypocrisy damages the NPT, and stimulates nations, and worse, sub-state actors, to ask why, if these countries that face no threats continue to cling to these weapons, must we foreswear them?...

Without modification, current US policies will destroy the basis of global trust in the NPT, and in arms control that is essential to their success."

13.3 Rule of Law, the NPT, and Global Security. Speaker, Nicole Deller, Lawyers' Committee for Nuclear Policy.

"This is an age fraught with the risk of use of nuclear weapons. It is a time when the world faces climate change whose consequences could range from severe to catastrophic. There is a global economy in which a few hundred of the world's richest people have combined wealth greater than the poorest two billion, and there are vast and growing differences between haves and have-nots within and between countries. Technology makes information about these gaps easily available, as it does data about weapons of mass destruction. To take on these and other problems, coordinated local, national, regional and global actions and cooperation are necessary.

Treaties like all other tools in this toolbox are imperfect instruments. But without a framework of multilateral agreements, the alternative is for states to decide for themselves when action is warranted in their own interests, and to proceed to act unilaterally against others when they feel aggrieved. This is a recipe for the powerful to be police, prosecutor, judge, jury, and executioner all rolled into one. It is a path that cannot but lead to the arbitrary application and enforcement of law. The consequences of such a course for security will be disastrous. To marginalize the system of treaty-based international law rather than build on its many strengths is not only unwise, it is extremely dangerous. It is urgent that the world's states, including the most powerful, reject this path and make global treaties crucial instruments in meeting the security challenges of the 21st century."

13.4 Inter-Religious Representatives' Statement. Speaker, Arun Elhance, World Conference of Religion for Peace.

"As representatives of religions and faiths, we are appalled at the spiritual and moral corruption and bankruptcy that are implied by and reflected in the efforts by some states to develop constituencies that would accept the use of nuclear weapons. We find it abhorring that while life on earth is already threatened with extinction by thousands of existing nuclear weapons and missiles, many on "hair trigger alert", new weapons are still being developed or are proposed to be developed and deployed. Such developments are particularly unacceptable in a world where billions of men, women and children have yet to taste any fruits of economic development and where a majority of the world's population struggles to survive day-by-day under inhumane conditions. We want to see all resources currently being wasted and planned to be spent on nuclear weapons to be diverted to address the urgent social, economic, environmental, and human security and human rights problems that we are confronted with as a world community..

From our side, we renew our commitment to devote the spiritual, moral, material and infrastructure resources of our organizations and communities to the service of NPT and the efforts of states and the United Nations to eliminate the threats posed by nuclear weapons, now and in the future. We commit ourselves to help materialize the positive powers of all religions and faiths to advocate for total nuclear disarmament at all levels, from local to global, at the earliest date. We pledge that through peace education and advocacy we will inform our constituencies of the dangers posed by nuclear weapons as well as the benefits to be derived humanity from their elimination. We urge the United Nations and all specialized agencies, the member states and all concerned world citizens to work with us and to call upon us for support in realizing the dream of a nuclear-free world."

13.5 Indigenous Perspective. Speaker, Richard Salvador, Pacific Islands Association of NGOs.

"While the NPT seeks to address the threat posed by nuclear weapons in the world while making provision for the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in Article IV, it fails to recognize or address the disproportionate impact of these activities on indigenous people and lands. The nuclear industry continues to perpetuate on-going and systematic invasion of Indigenous People's countries and the destruction of Indigenous lands and cultures. While the threat of use of nuclear weapons by the eight nations who hold these weapons of mass destruction serves to create a real fear in the world, in indigenous communities the existence of uranium mines, nuclear waste dumps and nuclear test sites are a daily threat to life and to the continued existence of culture.

All of these lead us to question the very notion of right to "peaceful use" described in Article IV of the NPT. Only a narrow reading, even a denial, of the real life, non-peaceful situation Indigenous communities face as they struggle to survive with the leftover poison of the Nuclear Age allows NPT States Parties to deliberate year after year about the proper "safeguarding" practices with little notice of the actual impacts of nuclear weapons production and technology on entire nations of peoples.

As previous Indigenous speakers have raised to your attention in this forum, the uses or applications or purposes or activities are only one segment within the cycle of the nuclear industry. The negotiation and decision-making processes that take place in the context of mineral exploration and commercial mining, the storage of nuclear waste, and the conducting of atomic tests which mostly take place on Indigenous lands are far from peaceful. Article IV's reference to the "peaceful" uses, development, research and production of nuclear energy which are considered to be an inalienable right of all Member States of the Treaty need to be considered in the context of a more fundamental God-given inalienable right of human beings to life, liberty, and security."

13.6 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Speaker, Dominique Lalanne, Stop-Essai/Abolition of Nuclear Weapons.

"Although the Nuclear Posture Review notes that the US supports continued observation of the testing moratorium, 'this may not be possible for the indefinite future' and 'objective judgments about capability in a non-testing environment will become more difficult.'

These disclosures underscore the link between nuclear testing and continued reliance on nuclear weapons for security. They also reveal an appalling disregard of the NPT commitment to stop nuclear testing permanently. NPT member states that support nuclear disarmament and a CTBT should use every opportunity and every means at their disposal to express their concern and demand adherence to a permanent, verifiable test ban..

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, and Pakistan must sign and ratify the CTBT for the treaty to enter into force. Algeria, China, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, the United States, and Viet Nam must now ratify, without further procrastination. The longer these states wait to join the Treaty, the greater the chance that some nation may begin testing and set off a dangerous international action-reaction cycle of military and nuclear confrontation. It is vital to international security that the moratorium on nuclear testing be maintained."

13.7 Nuclear Arsenals, Missiles, and Missile Defense and Space Weaponization. Speaker, Regina Hagen, International Network of Engineers and Scientist against Proliferation.

"We propose the following steps:

. A declaration by all nuclear states of No First-Use against other nuclear weapons states and a commitment to No Use against non-nuclear weapons states.

. Ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, preserving and strengthening the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and completing START III negotiations as necessary measures for nuclear states to fulfill their nuclear disarmament obligations in accordance to the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

. Drastic reduction in nuclear weapons leading to their total elimination, including the prompt elimination of tactical nuclear weapons, an end to reliance on nuclear weapons in military planning and negotiations on a Nuclear Weapons Convention..

Instead of an expensive and futile arms race between missiles, missile defense systems and space weapons, the international community should start negotiating formal arrangements to prevent a missile race by controlling these weapons and creating an international norm against them. The negotiation process needs to identify the fundamental political and scientific issues involved in meeting the goals and provides a mechanism to tackle the problems in a systematic step-by-step manner. To resolve the problems before they become urgent, it is important to recognize the emerging dangers and risks by confidence-building measures and improved information exchange among key players. This would provide a basis for a comprehensive missile monitoring and verification system that could be extended for international control and common security in outer space.

To reduce the dangers we call for the following immediate steps:

1. Stop testing of missiles, missile defense systems and space weapons.

2. Initiate negotiations for an international treaty banning missiles and space weapons."

13.8 Consequences of Middle East Nuclear Weapons and Proliferation and Deployment. Speaker, Bahig Nassar, Arab Coordination Committee for NGOs.

"In the Middle East, Israel has acquired a nuclear arsenal of around 200 weapons, a fact which prompts other states of the region to seek weapons of mass destruction in order to counter the deadly threat of Israeli weapons. In addition, efforts are under way to equip the three Dolphin-class submarines provided to Israel by Germany with missiles which can carry nuclear weapons to undertake operations from the deep waters of the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. Thus, a second strike nuclear capability will be available to Israel..

Middle East countries are facing at present two grave threats: Israeli nuclear threats and US nuclear threats and military operations with conventional and non-conventional weapons, while Israeli nuclear weapons are left intact. The impending US wars against Iraq and possibly Iran and the plans to target four Middle East countries testify to this fact. Therefore this PrepCom should resolve to establish a mechanism to monitor the implementation of the 1995 Resolution on the Middle East in the period leading to the 2005 Review Conference."

13.9 Challenges and Opportunities for Nuclear Disarmament in South Asia. Speaker, Admiral L. Ramdas, Former Chief of the Indian Navy.

"Nuclear deterrence is not likely to work in South Asia. In the case of the United States and Russia, the competition was mostly ideological and there existed ample geographic distance between the two nations. India and Pakistan, however, share a long but bitterly disputed border with a much longer and deeply seeded history of direct military confrontation with each other. In fact, recent events indicate that the possession of nuclear weapons has hardly taught caution to the two sides. The May 1999 war in the Kargil region and the massive mobilization of troops and continued clashes along the LOC early this year demonstrate that nuclear weapons have not deterred conflict between the two rivals.

In this situation, what can be done to help our world, and especially South Asia, become a safer place? This question can be divided into two sections - action at the national and regional levels and action at the local level. There are active platforms, forums and individuals in the region who continue to address these concerns within the regional and national contexts. However, the nature of the issues is such that, without continuous and active involvement with International elements, there is little hope of achieving concrete progress within any one country or region. It is within this context that we would suggest through this important organ of the United Nations the following set of actions for the international community:
. Apply appropriate pressure to de-escalate the current face-off
between India and Pakistan.
. Persuade India and Pakistan to withdraw their armies to their
normal peacetime locations.
. Ensure a ceasefire along the Line of Control.
. Pressurize the two nations to commence a dialogue.
. Facilitate the conclusion of a Nuclear Protocol to include risk
reduction measures.
. Implement the 'unequivocal' commitment made in 2000 to
convene an International Convention on Global Nuclear
Disarmament in accordance with Article VI of the NPT.
. Encourage India and Pakistan to sign the CTBT and also to
participate in FMCT.
. Prevail upon the USA to rescind from its policies with respect to
the ABM treaty, missile defense, and the Nuclear Posture Review
all of which run counter to the overall objective of nuclear
disarmament and non-proliferation."

13.10 Nuclear Proliferation Problems and Dangers in Northeast Asia. Speaker, Randall Caroline Forsberg, Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies. Opportunity for Arms Control and Nonproliferation.

"Never has there been a more clear-cut case for international arms control agreements to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction than there is in Northeast Asia today. By reinstating the ABM Treaty, or at least indefinitely postponing the planned deployment of interceptor missiles in Alaska, the United States could prevent a near-term build-up of China's nuclear forces. In the meantime, deeper cuts in US and Russian nuclear arms could create an environment in which that build up would never occur and in which all of the current Nuclear Weapons States could make a good faith effort to move toward zero, as they have repeatedly promised to do.

Equally important, by agreeing with North Korea to a nationally-verified ban on the testing and export of missiles with a range over 200 miles - which North Korea has already accepted - the United States could completely eliminate the most imminent threat of a new state with an ICBM, which is at least a decade off; and it could further delay the more distant prospect of acquisition of an ICBM by Iran or Iraq. In other words, a missile agreement with North Korea would completely eliminate the alleged reason for developing a national missile defense for a decade and possibly much longer.

Instead of working for such an agreement, the United States is rushing to abrogate the ABM Treaty and build a national missile defense, even though there is no near-future threat of a hostile state's ICBM; even though the country closest to posing such a threat has offered to end its missile program; and even though missile defense deployment is likely to lead to a new arms race and perhaps a new Cold War, with China replacing Russia as the designated enemy.

Rather than pursue diplomacy, confidence-building, and arms control measures to forestall potential threats and prevent proliferation, the Bush administration has thrown up new obstacles to progress in nonproliferation, first by antagonizing North Korea with the harsh rhetoric of "axis of evil" and then by releasing a "Nuclear Posture Review" which calls for further development of mini-nukes and threatens a preemptive use of such weapons against North Korea in any future outbreak of war. This threat is a truly alarming development and one which betrays the US commitments made under both the NPT and the 1994 Framework Agreement.

Recently CIA Director George Tenet testified in a Senate hearing that North Korea is in compliance under the 1994 Agreement. It is incumbent on the United States to do its best to reverse the harm done recently and to comply with the 1994 Agreement by giving "formal assurances to the DPRK, against the threat or use of nuclear weapons" in order to avoid another nuclear crisis on the Korean peninsula.

Surely the international community should not and will not sit by while the United States, piece by piece, dismantles all of the work of the global system of arms control and nonproliferation regimes built up with tremendous international effort over the past 30 years. Nowhere is the devastating impact on nonproliferation efforts likely to be greater than in Northeast Asia. We certainly cannot allow another nuclear holocaust in this region. The time has come for the international community to take a stand, to hold the United States accountable, and put its feet to the fire."

13.11 Reporting by States Parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Speaker, Carol Naughton, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.

"The content of reporting would be expected to incorporate two general kinds of information:
a) Statements of policy, descriptions of implementation-related activities, and updates on the progress of treaty negotiations and implementation.

b) Declarations concerning concrete data, such as data on nuclear weapons holdings, delivery vehicles holdings, special fissionable materials stocks and nuclear technology exports.

The fact that much of this is already available would not remove the value of having it formally reported by States parties in the NPT forum.

The greater level of detail likely to be provided by some states should encourage openness in all States. Therefore, those States willing to supply additional information should be accommodated and encouraged.

The format for NPT reporting should be standardised for all States parties and would need to be worked out by those States willing to take a lead. There are several international reporting models already in existence but the criteria must be that it is simple, clear and easy to use.

It could be broken down into topics related to each of the Treaty articles and into time periods, providing a backwards-looking component and a forwards-looking component, projecting planned future developments.

However the most important consideration is in getting the process effectively underway with flexibility to add subsequent items from future Review Conferences. To aid transparency the reports should be available as official conference documents. The UN Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) would be the most appropriate institution to receive and compile reports submitted by States, having the experience of servicing other international bodies on arms controls. This is consistent with the 2000 Final document request."


The NPT: Crisis and Challenge [PART IV]
By Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.

14. Reducing Nuclear Danger: Priority Points

14.1 A number of delegations referred to a recent report, "Reducing Nuclear Danger," published by the U.N.'s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters < http://www.un.org/documents/ga/docs/56/a56400.pdf>. Germany suggested that the summary of ideas be the "subject of further substantive discussion in the review process leading to the 2005 Review Conference."

14.2 The Advisory Board's summary states that "emphasis should be
given to the following measures for reducing nuclear dangers":

"(a) Promoting a wide-ranging international dialogue on cooperative security;

(b) Preliminary political and technical measures in preparation for the possibility of convening, at the appropriate time, a major international conference that would help to identify ways of eliminating nuclear dangers;

(c) De-alerting of nuclear weapons;

(d) Review of nuclear doctrines;

(e) Further reduction of tactical nuclear weapons as an integral part of the nuclear arms reduction and disarmament process;

(f) Enhancing security at a global and a regional level by promoting increased transparency of all nuclear weapons programmes;

(g) Creating a climate for implementing nuclear disarmament measures. Programmes of education and training on the dangers of nuclear weapons would foster an informed world public opinion that would be able to exercise a positive influence on the political will to eliminate nuclear weapons."

The following specific measures and broad approaches received varying degrees of support from the Board:

(a) Preventing the further proliferation of nuclear weapons;

(b) Banning the use of nuclear weapons;

(c) Changing military doctrines to no first use of nuclear weapons;

(d) Withdrawing all nuclear weapons deployed abroad back to their owner's territory;

(e) Eliminating all but a very small stock of reserve warheads;

(f) Creating additional nuclear-weapon-free zones on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned;

(g) Providing unconditional negative security assurances to all non-nuclear-weapon States;

(h) Abolishing the policy and practice of nuclear sharing and a nuclear umbrella;

(i) Reducing the number of nuclear-weapon systems, including eliminating multiple independently
targetable re-entry vehicles;

(j) Enhancing nuclear transparency at the global and regional levels, particularly with respect to facilities and nuclear postures;

(k) Keeping nuclear submarines deployed in a mode that would make the firing of nuclear ballistic
missiles from close range on depressed trajectories more difficult;

(l) De-targeting;

(m) Shaping communication practices so as to make immediate strikes difficult or impossible;

(n) Keeping nuclear forces in a low status of alert;

(o) De-mating nuclear warheads from launchers;

(p) Removing essential parts from launchers or nuclear warheads (such as batteries, fuel, connection cables and computers);

(q) Promoting confidence-building measures between neighbouring States in territorial conflict, including the disengagement of forces, stationing of neutral (peacekeeping) forces on either side of the demarcation line, and refraining from supporting armed non-State actors within the contested territory."

15. Chairman's Factual Summary

15.1 The mandate of the PrepComm reads: "The consideration of the
issues at each session . should be factually summarized, and its results transmitted in a report to the next session for further discussion." No mention is made about whether there should be agreement on the factual summary or how the agreement would be arrived at. Chairman Salander, sensing that it would be virtually impossible to get agreement on any meaningful summary, informed the PrepComm that his draft summary would not be open for negotiation and would not be amended. He simply annexed it to the Report of the PrepComm and the Report was adopted.

15.2 The Chairman's Factual Summary follows:

"States parties reaffirmed the NPT is the cornerstone of the global non-proliferation regime and the essential foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In the current international climate, where security and stability continue to be challenged, both globally and regionally, by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their means of delivery, preserving and strengthening the NPT is vital to peace and security.

States parties stressed their commitment to the effective implementation of the objectives of the Treaty, the decisions and the resolution of the 1995 Review and Extension Conferences and the Final Document of the 2000 NPT Review Conference, adopted by consensus.

States parties further stressed that continued support to achieve universality of the Treaty was essential. They called on the four States remaining outside the Treaty - Cuba, India, Israel and Pakistan - to accede unconditionally to the NPT as non-nuclear-weapon States, particularly those three States that operate unsafeguarded nuclear facilities. Concern was expressed about the ongoing development of nuclear weapons and missile programs in different regions, including those of States not parties to the Treaty.

It was stressed that the best way to strengthen the non-proliferation regime was through full compliance by all States parties with the provisions of the Treaty.
It was generally felt that the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 have given an even greater sense of urgency to the common efforts of all States in the field of disarmament and nonproliferation. The view was held that further strengthening and reinforcing the non-proliferation regime was imperative to prevent the use of nuclear materials and technologies for criminal/terrorist purposes. The enhancement of the non-proliferation regimes covering all weapons of mass destruction, including efforts by the IAEA, was considered to be the most important integral part of combating terrorism.

There was emphasis on multilateralism as a core principle in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation with a view to maintaining and strengthening universal norms and enlarging their scope. Strong support was expressed for the enforcement of existing multilateral treaties. The need to seek treaties and other international agreements that meet today's threats to peace and stability was underlined.

The view was expressed that the Treaty should be seen in its larger context of coherent commitments and credible progress toward nuclear disarmament. Without the fulfillment of Article Vl over time, the Treaty, in which non-proliferation and disarmament are mutually interdependent and reinforcing, will lose its true value.

The importance of increased transparency with regard to the nuclear weapons capabilities and the implementation of agreements pursuant to article VI and as a voluntary confidence-building measure to support further progress on nuclear disarmament was stressed. It was emphasized that accountability and transparency of nuclear disarmament measures by all States parties remained the main criteria with which to evaluate the Treaty's operation.

States parties remained committed to implementing article VI of the NPT and paragraphs 3 and 4 (c) of the 1995 Decision on "Principles and Objectives of Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament" and the Final Document of the 2000 NPT Review Conference. Disappointment was expressed in the progress made in implementing the practical steps for the systematic and progressive efforts to implement article VI of the NPT and paragraphs 3 and 4 (c) of the 1995 Decision on "Principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament", as agreed at the 2000 NPT Review Conference. It was also noted that the goal of nuclear disarmament can best be achieved through a series of balanced, incremental and reinforcing steps.


The Moral Imperative for Abolition of Nuclear Weapons
By Rev. Dr. Joan Brown Campbell
Speech to the U.N. NPT Preparatory Committee
United Nations, New York
April 8, 2002

Ladies and Gentle Men:

It is with a profound sense of responsibility that I stand to speak to you today on a subject of such urgency that no words are truly adequate. Native American wisdom teaches that every crucial decision must be made in full recognition of its impact on the seventh generation. It is in this light we must look at any nation's decision regarding the use of nuclear weapons. The threatened use of nuclear weapons by any nation for any purpose at any time in any place holds hostage the future of our children and grandchildren and their children. The actual use of weapons of mass destruction would be an end to life in this world and possibly even worlds yet unknown to us.


Nuclear Weapons and Human Security: Ending the Conflict
An Address to the Middle Powers Initiative Strategy Consultation
By Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.
United Nations, New York
April 8, 2002

[Check against delivery]

Twenty years ago, in 1982, a world commission led by the Swedish diplomat Inga Thorsson published a report on the relationship between disarmament and development. It set out the security options for governments: more money for arms or more money for economic and social development. The world had to make a choice.


MPI Books
A catalog of MPI books

The following books have been authored by members of the MPI International Steering Committee.

A Maginot Line in the Sky: International Perspectives on Ballistic Missile Defense
By David Krieger and Carah Ong, editors

The Naked Nuclear Emperor: Debunking Nuclear Deterrence
By Robert Green

Bread Not Bombs: A Political Agenda for Social Justice
By Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.

The Ultimate Evil: The Fight to Ban Nuclear Weapons
Senator Douglas Roche, O.C.

MPI Reports from 2000 and 2001
Catalog of PDFs from 2000 and 2001

Download the following PDFs of MPI Reports from 2000 and 2001.

Towards NPT 2005: An Action Plan for the 13 Steps
By Tariq Rauf

MPI commissioned this report from Tariq Rauf of the Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. It assesses the relevance and importance of the thirteen "practical steps for the systematic and progressive efforts to implement Article VI of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons" agreed by consensus at the 2000 NPT Review Conference.

MPI Report 2000
MPI Annual Report

Report from the Atlanta Consultation on the Future of the Non-Proliferation Treaty
By James Wurst and David Krieger

In the interest of helping to preserve the non-proliferation regime and to promote the disarmament agenda of the New Agenda Coalition, The Carter Center in Atlanta and MPI convened a consultation which brought together governmental representatives and non-governmental experts to explore the issues and search for solutions.

13 Action Steps, NATO and NMD: A Brief on Nuclear Disarmament to the Government of Canada
MPI Delegation

Towards NPT 2005: An Action Plan for the 13 Steps
MPI Summary Report

Precious But Fleeting
Conference on Facilitating the Entry-Into-Force of the Comprehensive

By Douglas Roche, O.C.
November, 2001

Summary: Overshadowed by continuing U.N. action to combat terrorism following the September 11 attacks, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) conference called on the 13 remaining requisite states to "accelerate" the ratification process to bring the five-year-old treaty into force. But one of those States, the United States, refused to attend the conference (108 States attended), thus casting into doubt that the CTBT will come into effect in the foreseeable future. Nonetheless, momentum is building: 161 States have signed the treaty and 87 have ratified it.